The Last Passover of Jesus

Posted in: Ancient Near East Today
Tags: ASOR, Bible, biblical archaeology, dead sea scrolls, Easter, James Charlesworth, Jerusalem, Jesus, Last Passover of Jesus, New Testament, Passover, Princeton Theological Seminary, Was Jesus Jewish
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By: James H. Charlesworth
George L. Collord Professor of New Testament Language
and Literature and director of the Dead Sea Scrolls Project
at Princeton Theological Seminary

1. Spring wildflowers in the Jerusalem forest.

Spring wildflowers in the Jerusalem forest.

In the Spring, Passover is time for reflective celebration. The great festival is also time for joyous expectation, as humans relish in the return of warm sunshine and blooming flowers. Passover (Hebrew pesaḥ; Greek páscha; Aramaic pisḥā˒) commemorates, in particular, when the plague passed over the homes of God’s people, as recounted in Exodus 12:13. Passover is “the feast of Unleavened Bread,” (matzah) because Moses told the Israelite faithful not to put leaven in the bread, as there was insufficient time before their departure from Egypt.

Jesus was in Jerusalem the week before his crucifixion. At least three questions may be asked. Why was he in Jerusalem? Why was that time important? What traditions, beliefs, and hopes did Jesus celebrate and where?

Why was Jesus in Jerusalem? Scriptures shared by Jews and Christians demand that three times a year the faithful are to celebrate festivals in Jerusalem (Exodus 23:14; 2Chronicles 8:13); they are the feasts of Passover (Unleavened Bread), Weeks (Shavuot), and Booths (Tabernacles or Sukkot). The three are the appointed feasts listed in Leviticus 23:2 (compare 2Chronicles 31:3; Ezra 3:5). Jerusalem, Zion, is the city of the feasts, as noted in Isaiah 33:20. The most important festival was Passover.

Jesus was devoutly Jewish. According to Luke (2:41–42), Jesus’s family went to Jerusalem every year at Passover, and when Jesus was 12, his parents went to the Temple, perhaps for his Bar Mitzvah (conceivably his cousin, John, was present). According to sacred traditions, God demanded that all males appear in Jerusalem to celebrate Passover (Exodus 23:17; Deuteronomy 16:16). All must recline to dine, an arrangement that is clear in Jesus’s Last Supper according to John 13:23.

Aerial view of Jerusalem to the south, 1931. Matson Collection, Library of Congress.

Aerial view of Jerusalem to the south, 1931. Matson Collection, Library of Congress.

According to Mark (14:12–21), Matthew (26:17–25), Luke (22:7–14, 21–23), and John (13:21–30), Jesus was in Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. The first three gospels describe the first day of Passover, when approximately 10,000 lambs were slaughtered in the Temple, Jesus’s disciples prepared the Passover meal in the upper room of a house in southwest Jerusalem. Jesus’s last supper was either the Passover meal (according to Matthew, Mark and Luke) or a meal just before Passover with Passover traditions informing the evening (John). Following customs that are now well over 2,000 years old, Jesus broke bread, raised the cup full of wine, and chanted the Passover hymn. If Jesus broke “leavened bread,” then it was not matzah and it could not be a Passover meal. Mark (14:26) adds that “When they had sung the hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives.”

Why was that week important? The annual pilgrimage to Jerusalem is the time in the Spring when Jews celebrate God’s formation of Israel when he delivered the nation from slavery in Egypt. The annual celebration is shaped by a shared memory of that deliverance and a focus on experiencing anew God’s pivotal miracle. Passover continued for seven days (Exodus 12:15; Leviticus 23:6), beginning on the fourteenth of the first month in the evening. The paschal lamb was eaten on the first evening (Exodus 12:6, 8).

Long before Jesus, Jewish traditions reflected a long, sacred commemoration of Passover each year. For example, those with Moses left the city of Rameses in Egypt the day after the initial Passover. According to Joshua (5:10) Israelites celebrated Passover at Gilgal, while King Josiah celebrated the Passover in Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 35:1,16). And those returning from the Babylonian exile celebrated the Passover (Ezra 6:19). Knowing these ancient traditions helps us appreciate Jesus’s wish: “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you” (Luke 22:15).

Crowd waiting for the holy fire to come down from Heaven, a miracle celebrated by the Greek Orthodox Church during Easter week, Jerusalem. Photograph taken between 1880 and 1900. Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection, Library of Congress.

Crowd waiting for the holy fire to come down from Heaven, a miracle celebrated by the Greek Orthodox Church during Easter week, Jerusalem. Photograph taken between 1880 and 1900. Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection, Library of Congress.

Sociological research also helps us understand Jesus’s last week; crowds are the most dangerous sociological institution and without warning a crowd can become a dangerous mob. Jerusalem doubled in size as pilgrims assembled as crowds to celebrate Passover. John (12:12) reports the scene accurately: “a great crowd had come to the feast.” Pilgrims came from the West (Spain, Italy, Cyrene, Greece), North (Asia Minor and Syria), South (Egypt, Ethiopia, Arabia), and the East (especially Persia and Parthia). According to John (4:45) Jesus entered from the East accompanied by those most feared by the Romans, the Parthians; he had also walked, for about one week, with Jews from Galilee: “the Galileans … also went to the feast.”

Psychological research helps us to appreciate the dangers that abounded in a city swollen with pilgrims and filled with enthusiasm and fanatics expecting God to act again and free the Israelites from Roman bondage. Matthew (26:5) and Mark (14:2) report that the political and religious leaders feared a riot from an uncontrollable mob; they knew not to arrest Jesus, a charismatic leader with ecstatic followers: “not during the feast, or the people may riot.”

What traditions and beliefs did Jesus celebrate and where? Passover celebrated God’s infinite power and God’s promise always to protect Israel, known in the celebration of the Exodus and the creation of the nation, Israel. In Psalm 81 the LORD is portrayed admonishing Israel to listen and to obey him and not to include or worship any foreign god:


I am the LORD your God,

The ONE who brought you up from the land of Egypt.

Open your mouth wide, and I shall fill it. [Ps 81:10 (11)]


The Jew who composed Fourth Ezra, some decades after Jesus’s death, shared a universal Jewish thought: “I led my people up and out of Egypt; and I led him [Moses] up on Mount Sinai” [14:4].

Steps along the Southern Wall of the Old City.

Steps along the Southern Wall of the Old City.

Archaeological research has revealed many tangible aspects of the Jerusalem Jesus experienced his last week; after 2,000 years we may see what he saw. That astounding view is due to the lower layer preserved beneath the demolition caused by the Roman conquest just before and during 70 CE. Now visible are the remains of first-century streets, walls, mikvaot (ritual baths), buildings, sewers, shops, millions of archeological objects (including a spear and a woman’s arm), and notably the Temple Mount.

One stone in the western retaining wall weighs 570 tons. One may for the first time appreciate windows provided by verses heard but never understood; one of Jesus’s disciples who had never seen a stone over one ton, seeing the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, exhorted: “Look, Teacher, what large stones and what large buildings!” (Mark 13:1).


The traditions in the Passover Haggadah (literally “The Telling of the Passover Story”) antedate Jesus. It is a “scroll,” or book, Jews read the first night of Passover to commemorate “the Season of our freedom in love, a holy convocation, commemorating the departure from Egypt.” As the wine cup is raised, Jews bless “the LORD, our God, King of the universe.”

Giant stone blocks used in the construction of the Jerusalem temple. Photo courtesy James Charlesworth.

Giant stone blocks used in the construction of the Jerusalem temple. Photo courtesy James Charlesworth.

According to Rabban Gamaliel, at Passover one must chant three hymns or psalms (pesaḥ, matzah, and merorim). Pesaḥ is chanted because God passed over the houses of the Hebrews in Egypt. Merorim is chanted because the Egyptians embittered the lives of the Hebrews. Matzah expresses the memory that they were redeemed.

The eternal ritual. Within a few decades of Jesus’s Passover, Paul coined the concept that “Christ our paschal lamb has been sacrificed.” He urged Jesus’s followers to continue to celebrate Passover: “let us celebrate the feast, (but) not with the old leaven of malice and evil” (1Cor 5:7–8).

Paul seems to know the Passover Haggadah. First, in 1Corinthians 10:4, Paul implies that the rock followed after the Hebrews in their wanderings; according to the Passover Haggadah, the rock was round.  Having rolled itself up like a swarm of bees, it followed the Hebrews. Paul helps with a metaphorical meaning by adding that it is “the spiritual rock that followed them.” Second, in 1Corinthians 10:16, in the celebration of Passover, Paul mentions “the cup of blessing;” those exact words are said by the leader of the seder.

Thus, Jesus’s Last Supper becomes “the Lord’s Supper,” the Eucharist. Fluid traditions swirled in the minds of Jesus’s first followers as the Exodus from Egypt framed the life and exodus of Jesus.

Today, Jews celebrate Passover (in Jesus’s language); many look for the coming of the Messiah. Christians celebrate Passover as Easter. Many remember that the Messiah has come, and memorize words like these (in over one hundred languages): “On the evening of Jesus’s last supper, he took bread. Giving thanks, he said this is my body, as you eat it, remember me. After supper, Jesus took a chalice and said, drink this wine in memory of me.” In Jerusalem today, Jews and Christians gather around a table, with their respective families, and celebrate a very old festival in the breaking of bread and drinking of wine. Memory flavors life with meaning; two groups remember God’s mighty salvific works, with words pregnant with a kaleidoscope of meanings: “And out of Egypt I called my son” (Hosea 11:1).

James H. Charlesworth is George L. Collord Professor of New Testament Language and Literature and director of the Dead Sea Scrolls Project at Princeton Theological Seminary

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2 Comments for : The Last Passover of Jesus
    • JB Richards
    • April 7, 2014

    The week before the Jewish Passover, Christians celebrate the final days of Yeshua. Jesus, as he is more familiarly known to us, spent the entire week in and around Jerusalem, after having been paraded into Jerusalem riding on the back of a white donkey in fulfillment of the prophetical Messiah. Nearly a week later, he was crucified for sedition by the Romans at the behest of the Jewish authorities on the afternoon preceding Passover.

    The truth is that Jesus/Yeshua did not get to celebrate Passover in those final days. As an author of historical fiction focusing of the Jesus and the early Christian community, I find this type of article fascinating. Personally, I hold James Charlesworth in high esteem for his expertise and writings on the life of Jesus, and I appreciate the fact that he mentions Jesus’ last meal was not a Passover meal as traditional teachings sometimes imply. Though it is widely accepted that Yeshua/Jesus had a final meal-a Last Supper-with his closest disciples, he died before the Passover celebration began.

    From Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday, each day held special meaning for the young rabbi from Galilee, who had so many hopes, so many dreams, so much life still left to live. Long before that last week on Earth began, he knew that all of it-everything- for him was quickly coming to an end, and by the last day of the week, on Friday afternoon before Sabbat, he would be dead. His fate was certainly escapable- evidenced by his desperate pleas to the Father, whom he prayed to in the Garden of Gethsemane, to “let this cup pass by me”, and yet, only moments later, he chose to accept and fulfill his Destiny.

    We all know Yeshua’s story, but it is the telling and retelling of it that lets us share in the Passion and the Resurrection that was His Gift to all of us. During this week, many articles will be posted about Yeshua’s final days, and I believe this telling and retelling of Yeshua’s Story is critical to our understanding of Him. Each article provides us to glimpse a new fact, a new facet, into the life of Jesus. Yeshua’s Gift was a gift of Love, Faith, Sacrifice, and Hope. I thank James Chralesworth for bringing this information to light while honoring the the life of Jesus.
    JB Richards
    Author of “Miriamne the Magdala”- The First Chapter in the “Yeshua and Miri Novel Series” and Content Creator for The Miriamne Page

    For more information on this epic novel series, and The Miriamne Page, just click on this link:

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